Research & Tests for the protection of power transformers
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Research & Tests

Since 1999, our Research Department has released 59 scientific articles about transformer short-circuit calculations, tests, mathematical models, simulations and TRANSFORMER PROTECTOR efficiency to avoid transformer tank explosions and oil fires (list available upon request).

In order to study the energetic transfer phenomenon that occurs during a short circuit in transformers 2 experimental test campaigns were carried out; the first by Electricité de France in 2002 and the second by the Brazilian high voltage laboratory CEPEL, in 2004 on large scale transformers.

These 62 experimental tests consisted in creating low impedance faults in oil filled transformers equipped with the TRANSFORMER PROTECTOR. The tests showed that the arc first creates a huge volume of gas that is quickly pressurized, generating one high pressure peak that propagates through the oil. This First Dynamic Pressure Peak activates the TP within milliseconds preventing the transformer from exploding.

In addition to the experiments, a compressible two-phase flow numerical simulation tool has been developed. The experimental results have been used to validate the simulation model. Adding to this model a dynamic structural analysis package has been coupled to create a fluid structure interaction. These simulations definitively show the efficiency of the TRANSFORMER PROTECTOR fast depressurization system to prevent explosion and fire.

TRANSFORMER PROTECTOR testing

The arc used in the simulation, located at the base of the right bushing, has parameters given in the table below and total energy of 7.19 MJ.

Current(Peak) Voltage (Peak) Frequency Duration Total Energy
2,000 A 80,000 V 50.0 Hz 0.110 s 7.1986 MJ

Since 1999, SERGI Research Departement has published the 59 publications as described below.

Publication Title Publication Reference Year
1 Development Of A Magneto-Thermo-Hydrodynamic Model And Design Of A Transformer, On Load Tap Changer And Bushing Oil Cable Box, Explosion And Fire Prevention Amrpip1999.1 1999
2 Comparison Of The SERGI Developed Magneto-Thermo-Hydrodynamic Model Results With Measurements Made On A 160kva Transformer Amrpip2000.1 2000
3 Pressure Relief Valve Efficiency Calculations By Comparison To The SERGI Transformer Protector During Transformer Short-Circuit Amrpip2001.3 2001
4 Study And Design Of Power Plant Transformers Explosion And Fire Prevention Amrpip2001.1 2001
5 Modélisation Magnéto-Thermo-Hydrodynamique Dans Une Cuve De Transformateur De Puissance Optimisation D’un Système De Prévention Contre L’explosion Des Transformateurs Amrpip2004.1 2004
6 Transformer Protector Financial Benefit Amrpip2004.2 2004
7 Global Fem Model To Study Power Transformers Behaviour During And After Inner Electrical Fault. Application To Explosion And Fire Protection Amrpip2005.2 2005
8 Transformer Protector Live Tests Program Completed By SERGI Since 2000 Amrpip2005.1 2005
9 Transformer Explosion And Fire Prevention Live Tests On Large Transformers: Analysis And Simulations Amrpip2006.1 2006
10 Study Of The Pressure Wave Propagation And The Depressurisation Process For An Electrical Transformer Subjected To Internal Arcing Design Of A Decision-Making Management Tool For Transformer Explosion Prevention Amrpip2006.2 2006
11 Transformer And On Load Tap Changer Explosion And Fire Prevention TP Efficiency When Using A Horizontal Or Vertical Decompression Chamber Amrpip2007.3 2007
12 Transformer Protector The Answer To Prevent Transformer Explosion: Experiments On Large Transformers, Analysis And Simulations Amrpip2007.1 2007
13 Investigations On Oil-Filled Transformer Explosion Prevention Experiments And Simulations Amrpip2007.2 2007
14 Prevention Of Transformer Tank Explosion Part 1: Experimental Tests On Large Transformers Amrpip2008.7 2008
15 Prevention Of Transformer Tank Explosion Part 2: Development And Application Of A Numerical Simulation Tool Amrpip2008.7 2008
16 Numerical Investigations To Prevent Transformer Tank Explosion Amrpip2008.3 2008
17 Investigations On The Prevention Of Oil Filled Transformer Explosion: Experiments And Numerical Simulations On Large Transformers Amrpip2008.9 2008
18 Investigations On Oil-Filled Transformer Explosion Prevention
Experiments And Simulations
Amrpip2008.10 2008
19 The Answer For Preventing Transformer Explosion: Tests And Simulations On Large Transformers Amrpip2008.11 2008
20 Contribution To The Study Of Transformer Tank Rupture Due To Internal Arcing Development Of A Computer Simulation Tool Amrpip2008.6 2008
21 Prevention Of Oil-Filled Transformer Explosions Amrpip2008.1 2008
22 Prevention Of Oil-Filled Transformer Explosions Amrpip2008.5 2008
23 Comparison Of The Different Available Models For Pressure Rise Due To Internal Arcing And Evaluation Of A Fast Depressurization Method For Tank Rupture Mitigation Amrpip2008.2 2008
24 An Answer To Prevent Transformer Explosion And Fire: Live Test And Simulations On Large Transformers Amrpip2008.8 2008
25 Investigations On The Prevention Of Oil-Filled Transformer Explosion Amrpip2008.12 2008
26 Prevention Of Transformer Explosion: Tests And Simulations On Large Transformers Amrpip2008.14 2008
27 Protection Of Oil-Filled Transformer Against Explosion Amrpip2008.13 2008
28 Application Of A Decision Making Tool For Optimising Transformer Explosion Prevention Amrpip2009.6 2009
29 Transformer Explosion Prevention Amrpip2009.3 2009
30 Prevention Of Transformer Tank Explosion: Part 3: Design Of Efficient Protections Using Numerical Simulations Amrpip2009.4 2009
31 Prevention Of Transformer Tank Explosion : Part 4: Development Of A Fluid Structure Interaction Numerical Tool Amrpip2009.4 2009
32 Pressure Wave Propagation Induced By Short Circuits Inside Power Transformers: Development Of A Simulation Tool, Comparisons With Experiments And Applications Amrpip2009.7 2009
33 Simulation Du Comportement D’un Transformateur Soumis À Une Onde De Pression Interne Amrpip2009.8 2009
34 Protection Of Transformer Tanks Against Explosion: Experiments And Numerical Simulations Amrpip2009.12 2009
35 Application Of A 3D Computer Simulation Tool As A Decision Making Tool For Optimizing Transformer Protection Amrpip2009.5 2009
36 Protection Of Oil-Filled Transformers Against Explosion: Experiments And Simulations Amrpip2009.11 2009
37 Protection Of Oil-Filled Transformer Against Explosion Amrpip2009.9 2009
38 Protection Of Oil-Filled Transformers Against Explosion: Experiments And Simulations Amrpip2009.13 2009
39 Preventing Oil Filled Transformer Explosions With A Fast Depressurization Strategy Amrpip2009.14 2009
40 Protection Of Oil-Filled Transformer Against Explosion Amrpip2009.10 2009
41 Prevention Of Oil-Filled Transformer Explosion: Design Of Efficient Protections Using Numerical Simulations Amrpip2010.7 2010
42 Improving The Safety Of Generation Power Transformers Amrpip2010.8 2010
43 About The Safety Of Power Transformers In Nuclear Power Plants Amrpip2010.10 2010
44 Prevention Of Oil-Filled Transformer Explosion: Design Of Efficient Protections Using Numerical Simulations Amrpip2010.11 2010
45 Design Of Transformer Explosion Prevention
Using 3D Numerical Simulations
Amrpip2010.13 2010
46 Investigation Of An Internal Arcing Event In An On Load Tap Changer Using Fluid Structure Interaction Amrpip2010.2 2010
47 Protection Of Power Transformers Against Explosion Amrpip2010.17 2010
48 Protection Of Power Transformers Against Explosion Amrpip2010.18 2010
49 Fluid Structure Interaction Methods In Prevention Of Transformer Explosion Amrpip2010.4 2010
50 Development Of A Fluid Structure Interaction Tool For The Study And Prevention Of Transformer Tank Explosions Amrpip2010.1 2010
51 Experimental Tests On Large Transformers Internal Arcing And Transformer Explosion Prevention Amrpip2011.1 2011
52 Improving the Safety of Power Transformers Amrpip2011.4 2011
53 Simulation Du Comportement D’un On Load Tap Changer Soumis À Une Onde De Pression Amrpip2011.3 2011
54 Transformer Fast Tank Depressurization with Oil Bushing Cable Box Protections Amrpip2012.3 2012
55 Experimental Tests on Large Transformers Using Fast Tank Depressurization Technique to Prevent Transformer Explosion Amrpip2012.2 2012
56 Development of a Two-way Coupling for Studying Power Transformers Subjected to Internal Dynamic Over-Pressures Amrpip2013.1 2013
57 Transformer Fast Tank Depressurization with Oil Bushing Cable Box Protections Amrpip2013.2 2013
58 Fast Tank Depressurization Successful Operation During Short-Circuit on a 400 MVA Transformer during Operation – Comparison of Parameters Recorded during Transformer Internal Arcing Event with Computational Simulations Amrpip2014.2 2014
59 Case Study on Mechanical Depressurization of Live Transformer Subject to Internal Arc Amrpip2015.1 2015

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